This is a compilation of all the symbols used for harmonic analysis in this publication.

Roman Numerals

The Roman Numerals used for analysis in this publication will contain four pieces of information.

Chord Roots

First, the root of the chord will be expressed. If we are in the key of C, the diatonic roots of C, D, E, F, G, A, B would be written I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii. Uppercase numerals express chords that have a minor third and lowercase numerals express chords that have a major third.

Chord Quality

Second, the chord quality is expressed. The chord quality will be one of major, minor, diminished, or augmented. This follows the triad conventions also in this publication. The major quality is implied and will use no symbol. The minus sign (-) will be used to express a minor triad, o will be used to express a diminished triad, and + will be used to express an augmented triad. With this new information, the diatonic chords would be written I, ii-, iii-, IV, V, vi, viio.

Type of Seventh

Third, the degree of the structure that is built with thirds above the root. This is typically expressed as the type of seventh chords. These chords can be read about on the seventh chord convention page. The symbols used in the aforementioned page will be used for roman numeral analysis as well. The diatonic seventh chords would be written IΔ7, ii-7, iii-7, IVΔ7, V7, vi-7, vii-7(b5).

Alterations or Extensions

Fourth, any chord alterations or extensions will be written after the first three items and surrounded in parentheses. For example, a major seven sharp eleven would be written IΔ7(#11).

Roman Numeral Harmonic Analysis

Arrows and Brackets

ii-V Cadence

A solid bracket indicates an ii-V cadence. In the key of C, this is the D-7 to G7 progression. Functionally, this represents the subdominant to dominant change.

V7 Resolution

A V7 chord resolving down a perfect fifth is represented with a solid arrow. In C, this is G7 to C.

ii — sub V7

A dotted bracket represents an ii-7 to subV7 progression (D-7, Db7, C in the key of C). An outlined arrow represents a V7 chord resolving down a half step (Db7 to C in C).

To Minor

The “to minor” symbol is a relatively new symbol created by mDecks music. I include it here because it is such a common device in jazz and can be a helpful visualization of this harmonic technique. The symbol is a headless straight arrow and is representative of the CΔ7 to C-7 progression.

All of these are shown in the following image:

Arrows and Brackets Example